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How to evaluate the debris on flutes
Anatomy Apical Gauging Outcomes

The primary objective of the entire root canal treatment procedure is to eliminate microorganisms and pathogenic debris from the root canal system and to prevent its reinfection: mechanical instrumentation accompanied by irrigation could be considered as the most essential component that aids in reaching this goal. To understand if the instrumentation of the endodontic space has […]

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Vital Pulp Therapy: Part 1: Direct Pulp Capping for A Traumatic Exposure of Permanent Maxillary Right Central Incisor
MTA Pulp capping

Pulp inflammation or exposure may occur as a result of many reasons like carries, trauma, or over-zealous preparation. However, if left untreated, this may lead to pulpits, pulp necrosis, and then apical periodontitis, which means more cost and chair-time spent. In addition, more tooth structure loss would jeopardise the survival rate and the outcomes of […]

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Mechanical Management of Calcified & Curved Apical Third of Upper Premolar

Calcified Canals always represent a challenge in root canal treatment, specially when the calcified canal is curved (either moderate or severe curvature). Once the case is identified as a calcified one, either at apical third or the whole length of the canal, we should bear in mind that dealing with such cases requires lots of […]

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Endo-resto treatment. Management of confluent canals - Part II
Anatomy EndoResto

Case evaluation before treatment In endodontic treatments of teeth with more than one canal, we must allways think about the presence of possible confluences between the canals, there are several methods for their determination. In this clinical case I will present only one among others, which is performed by inserting a gutta percha and a […]

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Retreatment episodes, series 1

Root canal retreatment seems to be one of the biggest challenges in the Endodontic therapy, in the retreatment episodes we will review different scenarios with different cases. In Endodontics we are dealing  with a lot of challenges such as anatomy, mishaps, instrument separation, etc. but one of the biggest challenges is to deal safely with cases of […]

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Does anatomy represent a limit for root canal disinfection?
Anatomy Irrigation

From a recent Randomized clinical trial (Comparison of the Effect of Two Endodontic Irrigation Protocols on the Elimination of Bacteria from Root Canal System: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial) it was demonstrated that "there was no statistical difference between irrigation methods. Each protocol resulted in a high frequency of negative cultures. This high frequency of negative […]

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Saving hopeless tooth: case report

With introduction of mineral trioxide aggregate and other bioactive materials in endodontics possibilities of saving compromised teeth have improved significantly.    

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Perforation repair: step by step
MTA Retreatments

A tooth perforation is a pathologic or iatrogenic communication between the root canal space and the periodontal apparatus. To clinically determine if an endodontically perforated tooth should be extracted or saved, the clinician must first understand the prognosis and treatment. The biologic response of a perforated tooth is inflammatory and can cause a breakdown of […]

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The perfect fiber post removal
Retreatments Tips and tricks

The fiber post removal is always a challenge and the clinician should be as conservative as possible. Different techniques have been suggested, but two of them are the most common: Ultrasonics and counter-angle burs.   The removal of posts from endodontically treated teeth can be a major obstacle in the retreatment of teeth. The goal […]

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Endodontic Management of Maxillary Central Incisor with apical calcification

Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) occur frequently in children and young adults, comprising 5% of all injuries. Twenty‐five percent of all school children experience dental trauma and 33% of adults have experienced trauma to the permanent dentition, with the majority of the injuries occurring before age 19. Luxation injuries are the most common TDIs in the […]

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CBCT guided treatment planning and management of instrument fracture in the mesial root of a second mandibular molar
CBCT Separated instruments

Instrument fracture can be a very frustrating complication in Endodontics. Many factors determine whether a separated instrument should be removed or not from the root canal system. The aim of this case report is to highlight the usefulness of LFOV CBCT in the treatment planning of a second lower molar with a fragment in the […]

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Irrigation in Difficult Anatomical Conditions: Why IrriFlex®?
Disinfection Irrigation Tools

IrriFlex® has appeared on the market to change our current irrigation protocols. Its main advantages like its flexibility, its ability to reach the apical part of the root canal system adapting to any curvature, its size and its simplicity to use it have made from this needle a revolution in disinfection if compared to traditional […]

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