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Management of double iatrogenic perforation step by step

The American Association of Endodontists (AAE) Glossary of Endodontic Terms defines perforations as mechanical or pathological communications between the root canal system and the external tooth surface (2003). Root perforations are severe complications and are associated with compromised endodontic treatment outcomes, especially when bacterial infection is allowed to establish. Perforations may occur due to pathological […]

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The management of two mandibular molars with apical inflammatory root resorption

Apical pathology can appear as a straightforward diagnosis, however the tools available for assessment come across different limitations. Histology has highlighted various aspects that can not be yet coherently linked to a clinical situation using imaging investigations (Ricucci, Mannocci & Pitt Ford, 2006). Inflammatory root resorption makes no exception and reveals itself on periapical x-ray […]

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How to evaluate the debris on flutes

The┬áprimary objective of the entire root canal treatment procedure is to eliminate microorganisms and pathogenic debris from the root canal system and to prevent its reinfection: mechanical instrumentation accompanied by irrigation could be considered as the most essential component that aids in reaching this goal. To understand if the instrumentation of the endodontic space has […]

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Overfilling: Endodontic Failure Vs Clinical Success

Many dentists believe that procedural errors in daily practice, such as over-filling, i.e. the contact of filling materials, generally gutta-percha and ZOE (Zinc Oxide Eugenol) sealer with the periradicular region in endodontically treated teeth are a direct cause of endodontic failure. A number of Authors reported the negative impact of over-filling on the predictability of […]

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