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Autotransplantation as an alternative treatment option

Traditional transplantation, surgical extrusion and intentional replantation procedures are important treatment options that clinicians may consider performing in their daily clinical practice. 

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Radix entomolaris and paramolaris

Supernumerary root in mandibular molars; prevalence, classification, diagnosis and management.

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Distal canal as a determinant of MB2 location?!

Finding mB2 can be challenging work. Usually, the entrance is covered with thick deposition of secondary dentin, which impede visualization. In clinical practice finding MB2 is of higher importance, while ignoring it can lead to apical periodontitis in vast majority of cases. We want to share more predictable searching method for easy detection of MB2.

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A Mandibular First Molar with Radix Entomolaris and Middle Mesial Canal: a case report

Case report of the endodontic treatment of a mandibular first molar with radix entomolaris and middle mesial canal

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A diagnostic conundrum

Multi-rooted teeth in the upper arch can present diagnostic difficulties. Vitality testing can result in erratic response due to necrobiosis status of the pulp. The aid of CBCT scan to rule out the presence of vertical root fractures is highly recommended. In general cracks are not visible on CBCT scans (Brady et al, 2014), however […]

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Bending preservation of gutta-percha in lower first premolar with 3 canals

This article clarifies how to to bend gutta-percha cone and preserve this bending even if the temperature of the body can straighten the master cone in deep apical splitting of the canals.

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Four canals maxillary second molars

Maxillary molars have one of the most complex root canal anatomies. 
It is very important for this reason to correctly understand the anatomy before starting endodontic therapy. Correct planning starting from the diagnostic evaluation through the aid of x-rays and CBCT (if necessary) will allow the clinician to formulate a correct endodontic treatment plan and a correct choice of materials and equipment during the access cavity and cleaning and shaping and obturation steps. 


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Deep split in lower first premolar

Mandibular first premolar usually have a one root and one root canal but it shows a wide variety of abnormal root canal anatomy.

The occurrence of three canaled mandibular first premolar with deep apical split  is very rare, but it does occur.

The incidence of a three-canaled mandibular first premolar is approximately 0.2%, making such teeth most difficult to manage endodontically.

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Everything changes except for anatomy!

As the complex anatomy of maxillary first molars is one of the major challenges in endodontic therapy, knowledge of the complicated root canal anatomy and configuration is crucial to ensure the success of endodontic treatment and prognosis. This article presents an endodontically managed maxillary first molar with special anatomy.

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Middle mesial canal (MMC) in lower molars

The main canals in the mesial root of lower molars are the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals.  A middle mesial canal (MMC) sometimes is present in the developmental groove between the other mesial canals.  The presence of middle mesial canal in the range of 4-28 % is recorded and divided into three types: INDEPENDENT, CONFLUENT, AND […]

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Management of  maxillary first premolars with particular anatomies

To obtain good results in endodontic treatment it is important to remove all microorganisms from root canal system, three dimensionally sealing and the placement of a good coronal seal to prevent communications between oral cavity and the periradicular tissues. Preoperative radiograph identification, root canal access opening, intraoperative identification, location, instrumentation, debridement, disinfection, obturation are improtant […]

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Premolars with 4 canals is not a daily case

     The purpose of root canal treatment is to clear pathogenic microbes and infected pulp in the root canal, prevent it from producing toxic products, and protect the periapical tissue. The presence of root canal variation increases the difficulty of this treatment. It has been reported that 42% of retreatment cases are due to missing […]

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